Commissioned Officers vs. Enlisted Grades
In the previous table, ranks are divided into commissioned officers (CO) and enlisted grades. The former is appointed by a formal document issued by the head of state (the individual running government; Creating Places (The Art of World Building, #2) discussed heads of state in detail). The generic word “officer” typically means “commissioned officers” even though it could refer to non-commissioned officers. COs are trained in management and leadership and often have college degrees, which are required at higher levels. If such education doesn’t exist in our world, we can decide that experience matters more. If they have little to no experience or practical knowledge of being in the field, they’ll have trouble understanding the life of the enlisted grades they command.
By contrast, enlisted grades means any rank that is not a commissioned officer (who also outrank them). These are the bulk of any military—the fighting men and women and those who support them, such as pilots, engineers, technicians, and more. They can be promoted to higher enlisted grades and sometimes become a non-commissioned officer (NCO).
An NCO hasn’t earned the commission yet, and is promoted from the enlisted grades due to experience and seniority (as opposed to being an officer from the start). They aren’t paid as well, are less educated and trained, and have fewer legal responsibilities. Despite this, they are considered crucial to the military for several reasons: they’re the most visible leaders (higher officers are seldom seen by most soldiers); and the senior NCOs are the main link between enlisted grades and COs. Because they rise through the ranks, they have practical experience as soldiers, as opposed to COs, who may have none. They outrank lower enlisted grades. An army sergeant is an example.
Commanding and Executive Officers
Commanding and executive officers have different positions that are quickly summarized here.
A commanding officer (CO) is responsible for planning strategy and tactical moves, finances, equipment, duties, discipline, punishment (within military law), and more. Available positions are limited, with seniority determining who is promoted into an empty spot. Any unit that’s expected to operate independently can have a CO but the term is generally reserved for major units like an army, regiment, and battalion; smaller units have a commander, who is an officer, but is not a “commanding officer” with the rank, pay, or responsibilities/duties of one; they are often referred to as a leader, not a commander, as in “platoon leader.” As an example, a platoon leader cannot administer judicial punishment, but a CO can.
An executive officer (XO) is responsible for running a military organization and reports to the CO. By running the day-to-day activities, the XO frees the CO to concentrate on his own tasks. The XO is typically second-on-command in navies, but in other branches, they may not be in command, only overseeing administrative functions. We can change this, of course. Companies, battalions, regiments, and brigades each usually have an XO.
Rank and Role
While the details of what roles a rank has can change from country to country, and in our imagined world, there are some high-level leadership positions we benefit from understanding. In other words, who leads a battalion? What’s a rear admiral do? What about a wing commander?
For each military branch, the ranks and roles are listed next. By necessity, these are generalizations due to variations on Earth. Use these wholesale or as a starting point for customization. In some cases, you’ll see the role repeated for two adjacent ranks, which suggests either rank could perform that role, or both individuals at once, with one subordinate to the other. Use your imagination.
|Field marshal or General of the army||5-star rank, commands a sovereign power’s army, sometimes honorary or only used during wars|
|General||4-star rank, commands an army, highest peacetime rank|
|Lieutenant general||3-star rank, second-in-command (of an army corps)|
|Major general||2-star rank, commands a division|
|Brigadier general||1-star rank, commands a brigade|
|Colonel||Commands a brigade|
|Lieutenant colonel||Commands a battalion or regiment|
|Major||Commands a battalion|
|Captain||Commands a company, sometimes second-in-command of battalion, can be entry-level rank for those with advanced college degrees (doctor, lawyer, wizard?), highest rank that’s still in the field (as a fighter)|
|Lieutenant (aka, First)||Commands a platoon, often second-in-command/deputy to a captain|
|Second Lieutenant||Entry-level rank for officers. College graduates can skip this rank, and even others are often in it less than a year|
|Officer cadet||Trainee rank|
|Warrant officer or sergeant major||Warrant officers are typically technical experts, pilots, military police, etc. Sergeant major is highest enlisted rank|
|Sergeant||Commands a squad or fireteam|
|Corporal||Commands a squad|
|Private or gunner or trooper||Entry rank of 4-6 months duration (rank can be skipped if given awards). Troopers are cavalry, while gunners operate artillery|
Figure 7 Army Ranks
|Fleet Admiral||5-star rank, reserved for wartime, commands multiple fleets|
|Admiral||4-star rank, often the highest rank in peacetime. Commands a fleet|
|Vice Admiral||3-star rank, commands the vanguard of a fleet|
|Rear Admiral||2-star rank, the least experienced of three admirals (at the rear of a fleet)|
|Commodore||1-star rank, commands more than one ship at a time (flotilla or squadron of ships that is part of a fleet), temporary rank (usually a captain)|
|Captain||Commands the largest ships, highest rank to command a ship|
|Commander||Commands smaller ships like a frigate|
|Lieutenant Commander||May be the CO of smaller stations/ships, or XO of larger ones|
|Lieutenant||Senior-most junior officer rank, formally second-in-command of a ship (behind captain), multiple lieutenants on a ship used to be numbered by seniority as “first,” “second,” etc.|
|Lieutenant junior grade||May require two years of service|
|Ensign||Commands squadron or team. Entry-level rank for officers. Named for carrying the flag.|
|Officer cadet||Trainee rank|
|Warrant officer or chief petty officer||Requires passing special exams and with high scores, plus enlistment time|
|Petty officer||Often specialists|
|Leading seaman||The senior-most seaman|
Figure 8 Navy Ranks
|Marshal of the air force||5-star rank, typically ceremonial (like those from the royal family) if at all (it’s rare)|
|Air chief marshal||4-star rank, commander of the air force, highest rank|
|Air marshal||3-star rank, commander of a large formation/vanguard of fleet|
|Air vice-marshal||2-star rank, commands large formation/rear of fleet|
|Air commodore||1-star rank, commands multiple groups|
|Group captain||Commands a group (aka wing)|
|Wing commander||Commands a wing or squadron|
|Squadron leader||Commands a squadron or flight, most junior of senior ranks|
|Flight lieutenant||Manages team of airmen/specialists/NCOs, can be second-in-command of squadron|
|Flying officer||Applies to ground crew too|
|Pilot officer||Entry-level rank for officers, can be skipped for those with training|
|Flight cadet||Trainee rank|
|Warrant officer||Warrant officers are typically technical experts, pilots|
|Sergeant||Commands a squad|
|Corporal||Commands a squad|
Figure 9 Air Force Ranks